Over the last decade researchers have been looking at how geckos can scamper up glass and seem to be able to cling to any surface.

Only in recent years has their secret been revealed with the aid of an electron microscope. Microscopic hairs called spatulae exist on their foot pads and toes, and these adhere to the atoms on a surface through what are known as van der Waals forces. That is where protons in the atoms on one surface attract electrons on the other. This atomic attraction is very weak, but the spatulae are so numerous that the collective force is enough to hold the gecko up against gravity, no matter what the surface. Since no glue is involved, the gecko can simply peel its foot off and move on.

According to an article in the online journal PLOS ONE, “Repeated Origin and Loss of Adhesive Toepads in Geckos”, geckos stumbled upon their unique technology a number of times in the course of their history, then lost it, and then stumbled upon it again, independently in separate gecko families. The article states, “The most likely hypothesis suggests that adhesive toepads evolved 11 times and were lost nine times”.

Geckos are hugely diverse, with more than 1450 species in existence, but only 60% have the special toes. The article goes on to speak about this adhesive-toe system as a feature of “digital design”. But what they are saying is that when some geckos needed it, they evolved it and when their environment changed and the design proved unhelpful, they dropped that genetic information. But then in a different living environment, they needed it again and back it came. This is a very convenient theory that cuts across all evolutionary principles of so-called genetic inheritance and demonstrates how foolish the wisdom of man is.

Another hidden feature of the gecko is its ability to shed water from its skin via a self-propulsion mechanism. An eye-catching video at New Scientist shows the lizard making water literally fly off its skin.

How does it work? One prominent feature of this group of lizards is their small hairs, called spinules, which are densely packed, being spaced 0.2–0.7 micrometres apart and up to several micrometres in height. When water droplets sit on these spinules they tend to combine and this coalescence converts surface energy into kinetic energy. When the droplets reach a sufficient size, the kinetic energy overcomes adhesional forces on the surface and they self-propel off, like popcorn. It has been speculated that this prevents moisture-loving microbes from thriving on the lizard’s skin, and it might also work as a self-cleaning mechanism. To argue that mindless, random forces anticipated this mechanism as being advantageous to the species and then began to change the DNA over time to produce skin like this is beyond belief.

One type of gecko (the pygmy gecko from South America) can float on water and even walk on it. Because of its hydrophobic skin and notably small size, it doesn’t sink because of water surface tension and its special skin works like a waterproof jacket in repelling water.

High-speed video collected in the rainforest in Singapore reveals the ability of geckos to race on the water’s surface at speeds comparable to running and climbing. Researchers were intrigued as to how they managed to race along the water’s surface at speeds exceeding conventional surface swimming limits. At roughly 6 grams in weight, the mouse-sized reptile seemed too heavy to rely on surface tension, but too light to generate enough slapping force to keep its body above water.

The scientists devised experiments where they varied the surface tension of water by adding soap and shot high-speed video of the geckos darting across these liquids. By closely examining the geckos’ movements and estimating the forces involved, the researchers discovered that the animals combined up to four strategies to run across water.

The first was the use of a trotting gait with all four limbs, creating air cavities in the water during slapping. These cavities pushed their head and anterior trunk above the water line. The second was to take advantage of surface tension by semi-planing (similar to hydro-planing when your car slides on a wet surface because the water lifts the tyres off the road). The third was to use the benefit of super-hydrophobic skin which reduces drag during that aquaplaning. The fourth strategy was to laterally undulate their bodies, including their submerged posterior trunk and tail, generating thrust for forward propulsion, much like alligators.

Swimming skills do not pass from one generation to another, so how is it that each generation knows how to race across water without being schooled in the art of swimming? The only answer must be that God made this creature to behave this way.“In wisdom hast thou made them all.”